Veterinary advice should be sought before applying any treatment or vaccine.

Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease that affects all (both wild and domestic) cloven-hoofed animals. FMD is caused by a nonenveloped, icosahedral, single-stranded RNA virus of the genus Aphthovirus, in the family Picornaviridae. FMD is highly regulated, and is an OIE-listed disease by the World Organization for Animal Health.

Goats usually develop a subclinical form of FMD, where they can act as a source of infection for other species. When goats do show signs of FMD, they are more often associated with the feet than the mouth. In kids, peracute death from myocarditis often occurs with no other signs.

There is no specific treatment for FMD, however supportive care can be provided to help infected animals with recovery.

Transmission: FMD is transmitted most commonly by inhalation of aerosolized virus or by direct entry of virus into abraded epithelium of the mouth or feet.

Symptoms

Dullness
Loss of appetite
Shivering
Fever
Restlessness
Lip smacking
Drooling
Increased heart and respiratory rate
Abortion
Lameness
Fuid-filled vesicles in the mouth, teats or feet
Sloughing of tissue
10%
Painful ulcers
Reluctance to stand or move
Separation of coronary band
Death

Diagnosis

  • History
  • Clinical signs
  • Physical exam
  • Laboratory tests
  • Necropsy

Treatment

Treatment TypeDetails
AntibioticsFor prevention or control of secondary bacterial infection from erupting ulcers
Foot bathsIf feet or affected, using a 5% potassium permanganate solution
Topical antisepticsFor ulcers

Prevention

  • Vaccination combined with adjuvant
  • Biosecurity

Article Reference

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