Veterinary advice should be sought before applying any treatment or vaccine.

Blue-green algae, also known as cyanobacteria, are a diverse group of oxygenic photoautotrophic gram-negative bacteria, some of which are capable of producing deadly cyanotoxins. Cyanotoxins are secondary metabolites which are toxic to most of the eukaryotic organisms including algae, plants, animals and humans. Although there are several types of cyanotoxins, they primarily affect the goat’s liver (Microcystin, Nodularin, Cylindrospermopsin) or nervous system (Anatoxin-a, Saxitoxin).

Cyanobacterial blooms occur worldwide in freshwater sources, usually nutrient-rich calm waters such as that found in ponds and dugouts. The occurrence of toxic cyanobacterial blooms has increased in frequency and severity. They are often associated with hot, dry weather.

Goats are poisoned through ingestion of water from these contaminated water sources. Symptoms of poisoning vary depending on the type of toxin ingested. Neurotoxic cyanotoxins (associated with the nervous system) will result in muscle tremors, decreased movement, difficulty breathing, convulsions, or in many cases sudden collapse and death.

Hepatotoxic cyanotoxins (associated with the liver) will cause weakness, bloody diarrhea, pale colored mucous membranes, mental derangement, and eventually death. Those goats that survive, may lose weight or develop photosensitization.

Symptoms

Blue green staining on hair coat
Difficulty breathing
Weakness
Pale colored mucous membranes
Bloody diarrhea
Weight loss
Photosensitization
Muscle tremors
Collapse
Convulsions
Sudden death

Diagnosis

  • History
  • Clinical signs
  • Physical exam
  • Laborary tests - detection of algal toxins in water samples and GI contents

Treatment

Treatment TypeDetails
Activated charcoal
Atropine
Symptomatic and supportive care

Prevention

  • Fence off downwind drinking areas where algae may be present
  • Add copper sulfate evenly to the water (the recommended maximum concentration in the water is 1 ppm, equivalent to 2.7 lb/acre-foot or 8 lbs per million gallons of water)
  • Regularly clean water troughs during humid conditions

Prognosis

Poor

Article Reference

    Risk Factors

    • Algae growth in water trough
    • Access to a stagnant water source in pastures

    Seasonality

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